Clinical research seeks, through clinical trials, to show that the possible new treatments are effective and safe for humans. It is based on previously obtained laboratory results (during the stages of basic research and preclinical research).
Depending on the study treatment in question, clinical trials are carried out with participants who are healthy or who have a specific medical condition.
Preclinical research is based on the knowledge gathered during basic research. It is conducted on animal or human cells (in vitro) or on laboratory animals (in vivo) by university research centres or drug companies.
When preclinical research confirms that the treatment on animals is promising, and if the necessary approvals are obtained, clinical research can begin with a first clinical trial on humans.